Sunday 30 September 2012

Handling native API in a managed application

Although Windows 8 and .NET 4.5 have already been released, bringing WinRT with them and promising the end of P/Invoke magic, there's still a lot of time left until programmers can really depend on that. For now, the most widely available way to interact with the underlying operating system from a C# application, when the framework doesn't suffice, remains P/Invoking the Win32 API. In this post I describe my attempt to wrap an interesting part of that API for managed use, pointing out several possible pitfalls.

rusted gears

Lets start with a disclaimer: almost everything you need from your .NET application is doable in clean, managed C# (or VisualBasic or F#). There's usually no need to descend into P/Invoke realms, so please consider again if you really have to break from the safe (and predictable) world of the Framework.

Now take a look at one of the use cases where the Framework does not deliver necessary tooling: I have an application starting several children processes, which may in turn start other processes as well, over which I have no control. But I still need to turn the whole application off, even when one of the grandchild processes breaks in a bad way and stops responding. (If this is really your problem, then take a look at KillUtil.cs from CruiseControl.NET, as this way ultimately what I had to do.)

There is a very nice mechanism for managing child processes in Windows, called Job Objects. I found several partial attempts of wrapping it into a managed API, but nothing really that fitted my purpose. An entry point for grouping processes into jobs is the CreateJobObject function. This is a typical Win32 API call, requiring a structure and a string as parameters. Also, meaning of the parameters might change depending on their values. Not really programmer-friendly. There are a couple of articles on how the native types map into .NET constructs, but it's usually fastest to take a look at and write your code based on samples there. Keep in mind that it's a wiki and examples will often contain errors.

What kind of errors? For one, they might not consider 32/64 bit compatibility. If it's important to you then be sure to compile your application in both versions - if your P/Invoke signatures aren't proper you'll see some ugly heap corruption exceptions. Other thing often missing from the samples is error checking. Native functions do not throw exceptions, they return status codes and update the global error status, in a couple of different ways. Checking how a particular function communicates failure is probably the most tricky part of wrapping. For that particular method I ended up with the following signature:

[DllImport("kernel32", SetLastError = true, CharSet = CharSet.Auto)]
private static extern IntPtr CreateJobObject(IntPtr lpJobAttributes, string lpName);

Modifiers static extern are required by P/Invoke mechanism, private is a good practice - calling those methods requires a bit of special handling on the managed side as well. You might also noticed that I omitted the .dll part of the library signature - this doesn't matter on Windows, but Mono will substitute a suitable extension based on the operating system it's running on. For the error reporting to work, it's critical that the status is checked as soon as the method returns. Thus the full call is as follows:

IntPtr result = CreateJobObject(IntPtr.Zero, null);
if (result == IntPtr.Zero)
    throw new Win32Exception();

On failure, this will read the last reported error status and throw a descriptive exception.

Every class holding unmanaged resources should be IDisposable and also include proper cleanup in it's finalizer. Since I'm only storing an IntPtr here I'll skip the finalizer, because I might not want for the job group to be closed in some scenarios. In general that's a bad pattern, it would be better to have a parameter controlling the cleanup instead of "forgetting" the Dispose() call on purpose.

There's quite a lot of tedious set-up code involved in job group control that I won't be discussing in detail (it's at the end of this post if you're interested), but there are a couple of tricks I'd like to point out. First, and pointed out multiple times in P/Invoke documentation (yet still missing from some samples) is the [StructLayout (LayoutKind.Sequential)] attribute, instructing the runtime to lay out your structures in memory exactly as they are in the file. Without that padding might be applied or even the members might get swapped because of memory access optimisation, which would break your native calls in ways difficult to diagnose (especially if the size of the structure would still match).

As I mentioned before, Win32 API calls often vary their parameters meaning based on their values, in some cases expecting differently sized structures. If this happens, information on the size of the structure is also required. Instead of manual counting, you can rely on Marshal.SizeOf (typeof (JobObjectExtendedLimitInformation)) to do this automatically.

Third tip is that native flags are best represented as enum values and OR'ed / XOR'ed as normal .NET enums:

private enum LimitFlags : ushort
    JobObjectLimitKillOnJobClose = 0x00002000

Wrapping unmanaged API often reveals other problems with it's usage. In this case, first problem was that Windows 7 uses Compatibility Mode for launching Visual Studio, which that wraps it and every program started by it in a job object. Since a job can't (at least not in Windows 7) belong to multiple groups, my new job group assignment would fail and the code would never work inside a debugger. As usual, StackOverflow proved to be helpful in diagnosing and solving this problem.

However, my use case is still not fulfilled: if I add my main process to the job group, it will be terminated as well when I close the group. If I don't, then a child process might spin off children of its own before it is added to the group. In native code, this would be handled by creating the child process as suspended and resuming it only after it has been added to the job object. Unfortunately for me, turns out that Process.Start performs a lot of additional set-up that would be much too time consuming to replicate. Thus I had to go back to the simple KillUtil approach.

I've covered a couple of most common problems with calling native methods from a managed application and presented some useful patterns that make working with them easier. The only part missing is the complete wrapper for the API in question: